4:1-4 Jonah becomes angry that God has shown compassion to Nineveh. Jonah says that he wishes to die because it is better for him to die than live and he thinks this way perhaps for several reasons. One could be that he fears that Israel is no longer favored by God, therefore, neither is he. He could also think that because Nineveh repented and was shown mercy by God, he should die, for it would be better for him to die hating Nineveh than live loving them.
4:5-9 Jonah went east of the city and made himself a shelter. He sat in comfort in anticipation that something bad would happen to the city.
Then God makes this vine grow over Jonah to provide comfort to his discomfort and for once Jonah is described as being happy, and he is happy about the vine. However, the next day, God allowed a worm to eat the vine and kill it. Then God sent a wind to cause Jonah’s discomfort again. Jonah then wanted to die because he was so uncomfortable.
God then asks if Jonah has a right to be angry about the vine and Jonah replies that he does have a right and that he is angry enough to die.
4:10-11 God then compares Jonah’s relationship with the vine to God’s relationship to Nineveh. God then says that Jonah was concerned about this vine, even though he did nothing to make it grow. Likewise, Nineveh has all these people in it and they are lost. The book ends with God’s question, “Should I not be concerned about that great city?”